It's not quite clear to me where you got the vamp-aubio.lib static library from? There isn't a static library included in the vamp-aubio distribution.
I'm far from expert on the details of Windows libraries and linkers -- and this is clearly a Windows-specific problem. But I think this sort of error, in which you have an unresolved symbol with an "__imp__" prefix, means that you have code that was compiled specifically to be used in a DLL, where the symbols have been declared with __declspec(dllimport). I don't think you can link such code statically without some further trickery. Generally, to produce a static library, you would have to compile the code in a different way using some pre-processor symbol that tells the compiler not to generate the DLL import prefixes. Exactly how to do this, usually, depends on the build system for the library.
I'm sorry I don't have any specific suggestions. You might get more help if you ask this sort of question on a site with a higher proportion of Windows experts (such as stackoverflow.com), although it would help if you can express the problem in such a way that people can answer it without knowing too much about the specific libraries you are using.
Alternatively, rather than trying to link against a static library, you might find it simpler to add the source files to your project and compile them all together.
(The specific symbol that you have -- lc_codepage -- comes from the locale library, and possibly originates with one of the Unix-Windows cross compiler support libraries from MinGW.)